Birth Control: Talking ‘Bout The Pullout Generation

When a recent study concluded that nearly 1 in 3 straight, sexually active young women used the withdrawal method for contraception, the media breathlessly coined a neat phrase to characterize these 15- to 24-year-olds: “The Pullout Generation.”

Elite Daily asked: “Gen-Y Or Gen-Pullout? Coitus Interruptus Is The New Form Of Birth Control” and New York Magazine breezily headlined its coverage, “No Pill? No Prob. Meet The Pullout Generation.” The Huffington Post held a forum, asking “Is this an appropriate method of birth control in this day and age?”

youngloveThe truth is, “pulling out” is old news. Indeed, it’s perhaps the oldest form of contraception (besides abstinence) and has been practiced for millennia. Though clearly not the most effective method of birth control, and offering no protection against STIs, withdrawal is free and when done with skill it can be somewhat effective.

According to Planned Parenthood:

–Of every 100 women whose partners use withdrawal, 4 will become pregnant each year if they always do it correctly.
–Of every 100 women whose partners use withdrawal, 27 will become pregnant each year if they don’t always do it correctly.
–Couples who have great self-control, experience, and trust may use the pull out method more effectively. Men who use the pull out method must be able to know when they are reaching the point in sexual excitement when ejaculation can no longer be stopped or postponed. If you cannot predict this moment accurately, withdrawal will not be as effective.

To find out more, I crowd-sourced the issue on SurveyMonkey and asked why my 20-something peers — savvy, educated — relied on such a frowned-upon form of contraception. I got over 30 responses that fell into five overarching categories:

1. No Access To Contraception
Responses in this bucket ranged from “Didn’t have a condom” or “forgot” to just going for what was most “convenient” in the “heat of the moment.”

2. Personal Preference
These answers were mostly about feeling liberated from other forms of contraception. People said pulling out “feels better” and can be “more pleasurable.”

3. Extra Protection
Some responders said they just wanted a little extra peace of mind. One guy wrote that he pulled out “just to be safe, the pill and condom have failed before,” and another said “there’s always the possibility that a condom could fail so I pull out every time” and even “…my girlfriend’s on the pill. She just gets paranoid and prefers that I pull out to be safer.”

4. Bad Options
Let’s face it, current methods of contraception fall short in many ways. Responses here included, “I don’t like how birth control [pills] negatively affect my sex drive” and “My partner could not stay erect while using a condom.”

5. Pitfalls
These comments took a little more courage, but felt pretty honest:
“I was drunk and wasn’t thinking,” one person wrote. Another said she was “too shy to mention he should use a condom.”

All in all, a wide range of reactions from the field. For an expert perspective, I spoke with Megan Andelloux, founder and director of the Center for Sexual Pleasure and Health in Pawtucket, R.I. She was part of that HuffPo video conference on “The Pullout Generation” so I asked her to unpack the study, published in the journal Obstetrics & Gynecology, and the subsequent public outcry.

According to Andelloux, pulling out isn’t a millennial thing at all. It’s just that these days, women, in particular, are more open and chatty about the type of birth control they use and about sex in general (see, for instance, Lena Dunham’s “Girls”).

“What is different,” Andelloux says, “is that women are feeling more comfortable or in control to say what they’re using. For many people, when they heard about the withdrawal method, it was always couched as a ‘non-effective form of birth control.’”

Andelloux says the withdrawal method should once and for all be viewed as a legitimate form of birth control. “One of the main issues that strikes me about this is we don’t actually talk about how to use withdrawal,” she says. “We get really shocked by the information, because we don’t take the time to explain how to do things correctly. One of the main reasons people get pregnant from this stuff is because guys don’t have ejaculatory control. Premature ejaculation is way more common than erectile dysfunction.”

Andelloux adds that even with all the downsides of pulling out, “it’s better than nothing.”

Here are some more important details of the Obstetrics & Gynecology study that make it more nuanced than some of the headlines suggest:

During the 47-month survey period, 31 percent of female subjects used withdrawal at some point. Of these women, 21.4 percent experienced an unintended pregnancy during the study. That sounds like a pretty high number until we read on: 13.2 percent of the women using only other contraceptive methods (not withdrawal) also became pregnant.

Our Bodies, Our Blog, critiquing the study in a piece called “Headlines About The Pullout Generation Are Premature,” points out that nearly 9 out of 10 women who practiced withdrawal also used other methods of contraception during the study. So whose “Pullout Generation” is this anyway?

An alternative interpretation put forth in New York Magazine suggested that some women are switching from hormonal birth control to a combination of period-tracking and the withdrawal method as a way to reclaim their bodies from artificial cycles of estrogen and progesterone.

All this being said, it’s important to repeat that the withdrawal method, on its own, is far from the most effective form of contraception. “If you were not looking to become pregnant or there is a concern of STI,” says Andelloux, “there are better choices out there.”

Better, but still not good enough, it seems. Yes, my generation will shift to better birth control — when birth control options themselves get better.

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  • Robin Fenti

    Still such a topic of discussion among many, there are multiple methods and choices people choose to make but being informed and of course safe needs to be among the highest on the list.

    This place was helpful to me and when I still have questions about any birth control related, they’re very helpful

  • tomdmeyer

    I take issue with the idea that women and/or couples lack “access” to contraception. Contraception is EXTREMELY accessible and highly affordable. What she means to say is that her respondents either didn’t have any on hand or weren’t responsible enough use it.

  • jmlorimer

    I had a friend who got pregnant without even full penetration/ ejaculation — one drop of seminal fluid has more than enough sperm to impregnate a woman. She had a baby and was still technically a virgin……If you rely on withdrawal to keep you from getting pregnant, the long-term odds are against you.

    • Johan Corby

      Your friend is lying to you.

  • fun bobby

    if you do it right its very effective

  • Terry Grigg

    Pull out should stand for pull out (and tie) those tubes.

  • keltcrusader

    One of the reasons this method fails so often is because even before men ejaculate, they secrete fluid which can contain sperm. So, even if they do not finish in situ, their presence has already been made known.

  • Auntie Pheminizm

    How about women using the “backing off” method? You know: stop blaming men for sex, pregnancy, everything under the sun.

    It’s just as easy for women to pull off as it is for men to pull out.

    • NekoNeko

      What exactly is your point here? Your “point” seems to boil down to, “Hey, ladies, stop being so slutty and you wouldn’t have these problems!”

      I also don’t see anywhere on this page where someone is “blaming” men for anything.

      Next time, please check your undue criticisms and judgement at the door. They do not foster good discussion and make you sound like a somewhat misogynist prick.

  • BevyCY

    What a bunch of balogna! You show me the guy who even wants to learn this “skill” and I’ll show you a gambler.

  • Mango Momma

    To me, the statistics indicate that there are a lot of folks who don’t apply whatever birth control method they use consistently and correctly. I wish there were a way to find out how many of those 13% failures for “other” forms were caused by improper usage. That said, at double the failure rate, the pullout method sounds risky. A 20% failure rate is pretty poor performance. The pullout method between two mature adults would likely be OK most of the time, but I question the ability of a teenage boy to be able to execute the maneuver reliably.

  • pro-plan

    With nearly half of all US pregnancies unintended, one must question the real effectiveness of the pull-out method. Fully 95% of these unintended pregnancies are attributable to those who do not use contraceptives or who use them inconsistently.
    be safer, go pro-plan-now.

  • pennylane

    I used the withdrawal method almost exclusively for about a decade with two different long-term partners. In between my long-term relationships, I used condoms even though latex leaves me feeling sore. I hate hormonal BC. I used it for about 2 years in high school and I was constantly nauseated and my cramps were not reduced in any way. Plus, my insurance kept switching what BC they would cover, so over those 2 years I had to try 4 different “generic” versions of whatever I was originally prescribed. This resulted in having to adapt to new symptoms every few months.

    I’ve had no pregnancy scares using the pull-out method. Both my partners had enough awareness and self-control that this method worked for us. That along with trust, of course, is the main factor of how successful this method is for any specific couple. In my early 20s, I would lie and tell my doctor that i was using condoms when she asked what my method of BC was. I didn’t want the lecture. At 29, happily married, we stopped pulling out and I’m now expecting my first.

    • Auntie Pheminizm

      Of course, if you got preggers YOU’d have all the choices and the guys would be SOL.

      Feminist “equality”!

      • Melissa

        Men consent to sex and should discuss the form of birth control to be used. If a man is not comfortable with “pulling out” being the sole form of birth control, then he should abstain from sex. If he wants sex it sounds like his partner and him need to agree on something that works for them both.

      • NekoNeko

        Given your other comment below, you seem to have some issues with women. Perhaps see a therapist?

        Additionally, once a man has to go through pregnancy and birth, they can perhaps have a larger role in the decision making process. I agree that men should have a voice, but ultimately, it’s the woman’s body, not the man’s.