Boston Marathon Bombing

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Ringing In Your Ears? Finally, Researchers Finding New Clues About Tinnitus

Alan Starr, an audio engineer, has tinnitus as a result of the Boston Marathon bombing. (Courtesy of Alan Starr)

Alan Starr, an audio engineer, has tinnitus as a result of the Boston Marathon bombing. (Courtesy of Alan Starr)

By Richard Knox

Alan Starr remembers being blown back by the bomb’s force. He had come to watch a friend cross the Boston Marathon finish line on that fateful April day.

Starr, a 52-year-old audio engineer who makes his living by his ears, suffered no visible injury. But, like at least 70 other marathon bombing victims, he’s left with a never-ending reminder of that moment — a death knell that never stops ringing in his head.

“It’s a very high pitch like a whistle,” he says. “It doesn’t waver. It’s just constant, 24/7.”

It’s called tinnitus, and it’s beginning to get the attention it deserves.

Nearly a million veterans suffer from tinnitus. 

This is partly due to the Boston Marathon bombings. Starr and a few dozen other bombing victims are participating in studies supported by the One Fund, created to help bombing victims, that are aimed at devising an effective treatment.

An even more powerful driver of tinnitus research is the enormous incidence of the problem among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans who’ve suffered blast damage. Nearly a million veterans suffer from tinnitus. That makes it the leading service-related disability — far outstripping PTSD.

And tinnitus — most often pronounced TIN-uh-tiss — is surprisingly common in the general population. At least one in every six Americans suffers from tinnitus — around 50 million people. Of these, the condition is “burdensome” for 20 million, according to the American Tinnitus Foundation. Two million of them have severe, disabling tinnitus, often accompanied by depression.

The problem has no cure and no very effective treatment. But after decades of dead-end research, scientists are beginning to figure out what causes the constant ringing, whistling, whooshing or hissing that makes sufferers feel trapped inside their own heads.

New research is providing some surprising clues. Continue reading

Time The Healer Moves Slowly For 2 Boston Marathon Survivors

Marathon bombing survivor Martha Galvis is learning to use a hand doctors are still reconstructing. Here Galvis attempts to pick up a pen off a table after a physical therapy session at Faulkner Hospital. (Jesse Costa/WBUR)

Marathon bombing survivor Martha Galvis is learning to use a hand doctors are still reconstructing. Here Galvis attempts to pick up a pen off a table after a physical therapy session at Faulkner Hospital. (Jesse Costa/WBUR)

It’s just the crumb of a muffin, but Martha Galvis must pick it up. Lips clenched, eyes narrowed, she goes after the morsel, pushing it back and forth, then in circles, across a slick tabletop.

“I struggle and struggle until,” Galvis pauses, concentrating all her attention on the thumb and middle finger of her left hand. She can’t get them to close. Oh well.

“I try as much as I can. And if I do it I’m so happy, so happy,” she says, giggling.

Galvis, 62, has just finished a session of physical therapy at Boston’s Brigham and Women’s Faulkner Hospital, where she goes twice a week. She’s learning to use a hand doctors are still reconstructing. It’s been two years to the day since she almost lost it.

On April 15, 2013, Martha and her husband Alvaro Galvis headed for Cleveland Circle — mile 22 on the Boston Marathon route. This would be the first of three spots from which they’d enjoy the race and the boisterous crowd. Their last stop would be at or near the finish line in Boston. Continue reading

The Psychological Aftermath Of The Sydney Siege

A hostage runs to armed tactical response police officers for safety after she escaped from a cafe under siege at Martin Place in Sydney, Australia, on Monday. (Rob Griffith/AP)

A hostage runs to armed tactical response police officers for safety after she escaped from a cafe under siege at Martin Place in Sydney, Australia, on Monday. (Rob Griffith/AP)

By Jessica Alpert

The images of five hostages escaping from the Lindt Chocolate Cafe in Sydney are striking. A woman runs into the arms of law enforcement, her trauma and fear palpable.

This story is still developing, but one thing is for sure: “It really doesn’t take much to instill fear,” says Max Abrahms, a professor of political science at Northeastern University and an expert on terrorism. “This one guy managed to shut down an entire city, divert many planes away from Sydney, and transfix the world in real time following this story.”

As of press time, police were reporting that the hostage taker and two people were killed. For those who survived, what lies ahead psychologically?

Dr. David Gitlin, Brigham and Women’s Hospital vice chair of clinical programs and chief of medical psychiatric services, says recent research suggests reliving or “debriefing” survivors is counterproductive and “actually may precipitate the development of PTSD.”

Instead, health professionals are encouraged to use a resilience model in the immediate aftermath of an event like this one, “helping people think about the things they need to do to feel safe and secure…to deal with things on their timetable,” says Gitlin. Of course, this may come into conflict with the needs of law enforcement, who are looking for further control of an event or preparing evidence for prosecution. As this siege has ended and it’s believed that the assailant acted alone, Gitlin hopes that those now released will not be interrogated at this time.

Gitlin, who led the Brigham’s psychiatric team after the Boston Marathon Bombings, explains that “people need to be surrounded by their loved ones, put into a safe environment, and only process this when they are ready to do so.”

Acute Stress Reaction and PTSD

There are two types of trauma, says Gitlin. Continue reading

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