Imagine this futuristic tableau: A severely depressed person walks into her doctor’s office, sits in a specially designed chair with a coil around her head, and with little more than an IV injection, undergoes deep brain stimulation to treat her deep, dark psychological illness.
Well, that’s not going to happen any time soon, but engineers at MIT are working on the building blocks that could make that fictional scenario a reality.
They’ve developed a method — a proof-of-concept, really — to stimulate brain tissue using external magnetic fields and injected magnetic nanoparticles that resemble small bits of rust. This technique allows for direct stimulation of neurons, which could someday be an effective treatment for a variety of neurological diseases, like Parkinson’s, and even further in the future, for severe, treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders like depression, without the need for highly invasive brain implants or external connections. The research is published in the journal Science.
Current treatments have been effective in reducing or eliminating tremors associated with Parkinson’s but involve major brain surgery to implant wires that are connected to an outside power source.
Polina Anikeeva, an assistant professor of materials science and engineering at MIT, says the new research suggests a much less invasive possibility. I asked her to describe the research in an accessible way and here’s what she said:
First, I want to clearly say that we are still very far away from any clinical or even pre-clinical application, this is a first proof-of-concept study, looking at the possibility of using these materials to stimulate neurons deep in the brain.
What we’ve done is to give a simple injection of nanomaterials (iron oxide) that look like small bits of rust [but aren’t actually rust], deep into the brain. This allows us to deliver stimulus using a magnetic field, which is converted into heat by the little rust particules. Now we have a system where a magnetic field is applied from the outside and with a simple injection of the materials we can deliver the stimulas deep in the brain without the connectors and without the implants. We don’t have to be invasive in order to do the stimulation.