It’s one of the great joys of early parenthood: Finally being able to sleep until a reasonable hour — say, 6 a.m. Then, before you know it, you’re facing the opposite problem: Homeroom is just half an hour away, and your tween or teen remains an immovable lump beneath the covers.
As any parent who’s observed it would suspect, this is deep biology at work. Today, the American Academy of Pediatrics issues both an up-to-date explanation of research on adolescent sleep and a ringing call to the country’s schools to heed it and begin school later for “pathologically sleepy” older students. Sleep deprivation in youth is a common — “and easily fixable” — public health issue, the academy says in a policy statement.
From the press release, whose headline begins “Let Them Sleep:”
“The research is clear that adolescents who get enough sleep have a reduced risk of being overweight or suffering depression, are less likely to be involved in automobile accidents, and have better grades, higher standardized test scores and an overall better quality of life,” [statement lead author Dr. Judith] Owens said. “Studies have shown that delaying early school start times is one key factor that can help adolescents get the sleep they need to grow and learn.”
Many studies have documented that the average adolescent in the U.S. is chronically sleep-deprived and pathologically sleepy. A National Sleep Foundation poll found 59 percent of 6th through 8th graders and 87 percent of high school students in the U.S. were getting less than the recommended 8.5 to 9.5 hours of sleep on school nights.
This medical stance on sleep deprivation is not new; the research has been accumulating for many years. But the academy reports that about 40 percent of American high schools still start before 8 a.m., and only 15 percent launch the school-day at or after 8:30. Among middle schools, it says, more than one-fifth begin at 7:45 or earlier.
If schools are not shifting later as fast as pediatricians might like, that could be because, like virtually everything in education, it’s not as simple as it might seem.
“Once you go deeper into the lives of kids today, things become more complex,” says Dr. Bob Weintraub, who was the headmaster of Brookline High School from 1992 to 2011 and is now a professor of educational leadership at Boston University. Based on the research, Brookline High shifted start times for most students to 8:30 during his tenure, he said, but such shifts do raise issues.
“One of the practical problems has always been for high school athletics and school activities,” he said; if school ends later, sports and other activities must start later, and outdoor sports are hindered when darkness descends. Continue reading